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欧宝体育官网app:“社会达尔文主义”究竟是什么意思?

欧宝体育官网app

Recently, due to the global pandemic of the new crown epidemic, and the United Kingdom’s ineffective fight against the epidemic, some individuals have proposed the theory of "herd immunity", which has caused huge controversy. However, the British government seems to have realized that this idea is unreliable. Perhaps due to the pressure of public opinion, it has shifted its focus to suppressing the epidemic. It also pointed out that herd immunity is by no means a goal or a policy.

最近,由于新的王冠流行病在全球大流行,以及英国对这种流行病的无效斗争,一些人提出了“群居免疫”理论,这引起了巨大的争议。但是,英国政府似乎已经意识到这种想法是不可靠的。也许是由于舆论的压力,它已将重点转移到了遏制该流行病上。它还指出,畜群免疫绝不是目标或政策。

Why is the "herd immunity" theory criticized? The question that the British government has not figured out and clarified is: Is the virus likely to mutate? How long can the effect of immunity last? How can the frail elderly protect their health? In addition, patients with mild illness are isolated at home and there are always people to take care of. This also increases the possibility of family transmission. How to solve this problem? Without answers to these questions, "herd immunity" was rashly put forward. As some commentators said, this is "taking the lives of the people to do roulette."

为什么对“群体免疫”理论提出批评?英国政府尚未弄清并澄清的问题是:病毒可能会变异吗?免疫效果能持续多久?体弱的老人如何保护自己的健康?另外,轻度疾病患者被隔离在家中,并且总是有人照顾。这也增加了家庭传播的可能性。如何解决这个问题呢?没有回答这些问题,就轻率地提出了“畜群免疫”。正如一些评论员所说,这是“把人民的生命当作轮盘赌”。

Perhaps this is a helpless move when there is no ability and means to fight the epidemic, but risking human life is a very disgusting behavior. Some netizens have given the British government the title of "Social Darwinism".

当没有能力和手段抵抗这种流行病时,也许这是一个无助的举动,但是冒着生命危险是非常恶心的行为。一些网民称英国政府为“社会达尔文主义”。

So what exactly does the term "social Darwinism" mean?

那么“社会达尔文主义”到底是什么意思呢?

One thing must be made clear first: "Social Darwinism" was not proposed by Darwin. It only extracts a part of Darwin's natural selection theory and applies it to human society.

首先必须明确一件事:达尔文没有提出“社会达尔文主义”。它仅提取了达尔文自然选择理论的一部分,并将其应用于人类社会。

Darwin said that creatures keep reproducing, and offspring will inherit some of the characteristics of their parents, but each individual will be different. Since the natural resources are limited, the natural world will screen out some individuals who are not well adapted to nature through various methods. Individuals who adapt to nature can survive.

达尔文说,生物不断繁殖,后代将继承其父母的某些特征,但每个人都会有所不同。由于自然资源有限,自然世界将通过各种方法筛选出一些无法很好地适应自然的个体。适应自然的个体可以生存。

This situation is not only applicable to most of the animals we know, but even bacteria. For example, humans will use antibiotics to deal with bacteria. A large number of bacteria will be killed by antibiotics, but a small part will survive. Then, when these surviving bacteria continue to multiply, some bacteria resistant to antibiotics will be produced. This is also a manifestation of natural selection.

这种情况不仅适用于我们知道的大多数动物,甚至适用于细菌。例如,人类将使用抗生素来应对细菌。大量细菌将被抗生素杀死,但一小部分将生存。然后,当这些存活的细菌继续繁殖时,将产生一些对抗生素具有抗性的细菌。这也是自然选择的体现。

It is generally believed that the person who really applies Darwin's theory to human society is an English philosopher: Robert Spencer.

人们普遍认为,真正将达尔文理论应用于人类社会的人是英国哲学家:罗伯特·斯宾塞。

We often hear a saying: Natural selection in the race of things, survival of the fittest. This is the thought in Darwin's book The Origin of Species. After reading this book, Spencer came up with a phrase: Survival of the fittest. Therefore, he advocates laissez-faire capitalism. He believes that striving for survival will inspire individual self-improvement, and self-improvement can be inherited through inheritance. Spencer also respected Darwin. He never went to church, but when Darwin died, Spencer made an exception to go to church to attend his funeral.

我们经常听到这样的说法:物竞天择,适者生存。这就是达尔文的《物种起源》中的思想。读完这本书后,斯宾塞想出了一个词:适者生存。因此,他提倡自由放任的资本主义。他认为,为生存而奋斗会激发个人的自我完善,而自我完善可以通过继承来继承。斯宾塞还尊重达尔文。他从未去过教堂,但是当达尔文去世时,斯宾塞例外地去教堂参加他的葬礼。

It should be noted that Spencer did not use the term "social Darwinism" during his lifetime. After his death, people summarized his thinking as "Social Darwinism", and through many people's reinterpretation, it became more and more controversial. Some of them also put forward their own ideas based on social Darwinism.

应当指出,斯宾塞一生中没有使用“社会达尔文主义”一词。他死后,人们将他的思想概括为“社会达尔文主义”,并且通过许多人的重新解释,它变得越来越有争议。他们中的一些人还根据社会达尔文主义提出了自己的想法。

Darwin's cousin Galton is also a believer in "social Darwinism". He proposed that human talents and qualities can be inherited through inheritance, so it is best not to allow those "unsuitable" people to overreproduce. What is an "unsuitable" person? Such as the people in the lunatic asylum, the people in the orphanage. If these people grow more than the "superior people", society will become an inferior society. Galton's thought later became the theoretical basis of eugenics.

达尔文的堂兄高尔顿也是“社会达尔文主义”的信奉者。他建议可以通过继承来继承人类的才能和素质,因此最好不要让那些“不合适的”人过度繁殖。什么是“不合适”的人?例如在疯人院的人,在孤儿院的人。如果这些人的成长超过了“上级人民”,那么社会将成为劣等社会。高尔顿的思想后来成为优生学的理论基础。

Social Darwinism has also become a theoretical weapon for many people. They use this theory to justify social inequality, racial discrimination, and imperialism.

社会达尔文主义也已成为许多人的理论武器。他们使用这一理论为社会不平等,种族歧视和帝国主义辩护。

For example, the German philosopher Nietzsche wrote a book called "So Says Zarathustra". The name of the book is a bit confusing. In fact, "Zarathustra" refers to Zoroastrianism, the founder of Zoroastrianism (what we commonly call "Zoroastrianism"). In this book, Nietzsche used Zarathustra to express some of his philosophical thoughts. One of the central ideas is "Superman".

例如,德国哲学家尼采(Nietzsche)写了一本书,叫做《所以说Zarathustra》。这本书的名字有点混乱。实际上,“ Zarathustra”是指Zoroastrianism,即Zoroastrianism(我们通常称为“ Zoroastrianism”)的创始人。在这本书中,尼采利用扎拉图斯特拉来表达他的一些哲学思想。中心思想之一是“超人”。

Nietzsche's concept of "superman" is not the American superhero that we generally recognize. Nietzsche's "superman" refers to a human being in an ideal form. He is different from all existing human beings. "Superman" is not restricted by the social morality defined by human beings, because "Superman" will define social morality by itself.

尼采的“超人”概念不是我们通常公认的美国超级英雄。尼采的“超人”是指处于理想状态的人类。他不同于所有现有的人类。 “超人”不受人类定义的社会道德的约束,因为“超人”将自己定义社会道德。

Why does "Superman" not follow the social morality defined by most humans? Nietzsche believes that the existing social morality serves the weak. The weak make up the majority, and they cannot compete with the strong, so social morality is set to restrain the strong. However, the weak should perish, and there is no need to serve them with morality. When the weak are destroyed, society will become a "superhuman society."

为什么“超人”不遵循大多数人定义的社会道德?尼采认为,现有的社会道德为弱者服务。弱者占多数,他们无法与强者竞争,因此社会道德必然会约束强者。但是,弱者应该灭亡,没有必要以道德为他们服务。当弱者被摧毁时,社会将成为“超人类社会”。

This idea of ​​Nietzsche was later used by Nazi Germany. Hitler was influenced by Nietzsche and proposed that Germans are noble Aryans, while Jews and other nations are low-level nations, so he launched the genocide of Jews and aggression against European countries, using Nietzsche's theory to increase his behavior. The so-called legitimacy.

尼采的想法后来被纳粹德国使用。希特勒受到尼采的影响,并提出德国人是高贵的雅利安人,而犹太人和其他国家则是低级国家,因此他利用尼采的理论来提高犹太人的种族灭绝和对欧洲国家的侵略。所谓合法性。

In fact, Nietzsche did not mean this. He did not support anti-Semitism during his lifetime, and he also opposed German nationalism. His "Superman" also does not define Superman as a dictator. Nietzsche believes that Superman is willing to admit his mistakes and make himself better on the road of continuous correction and improvement. In the "superman society", everyone can make this society better through competition. Hitler re-understood and explained Nietzsche's philosophy and used it to serve fascism. From the above example, we can see that social Darwinism will be used by some people with ulterior motives and bring serious disasters to human society.

实际上,尼采并不是这个意思。他一生不支持反犹太主义,也反对德国民族主义。他的“超人”也没有将超人定义为独裁者。尼采认为,超人愿意承认自己的错误,并在不断纠正和改进的道路上变得更好。在“超人社会”中,每个人都可以通过竞争使这个社会变得更好。希特勒重新理解并解释了尼采的哲学,并将其用于法西斯主义。从以上示例可以看出,社会达尔文主义将被某些别有用心的人所利用,给人类社会带来严重的灾难。

Another person who supports social Darwinism is Malthus, the British political economist. The ideas in his book "Principles of Demography" are a typical embodiment of social Darwinism.

支持政治达尔文主义的另一个人是英国政治经济学家马尔萨斯。他的《人口统计学原理》一书中的思想是社会达尔文主义的典型体现。

Malthus’s main argument is this:

马尔萨斯的主要论点是:

If the number of human beings is to grow, it will be restricted by objective living conditions. If the living conditions improve, there will be more and more people. But as there are more people, the population pressure will increase. In this way, people will find ways to increase productivity and meet the needs of the growing population.

如果要增加人数,将受到客观生活条件的限制。如果生活条件得到改善,将会有越来越多的人。但是随着人口的增加,人口压力将会增加。这样,人们将找到提高生产力并满足不断增长的人口需求的方法。

But in this way, you are caught in an endless loop: as productivity increases, people will become more people. Therefore, productivity has to increase again (this is like the more you make money, the more money you spend, it is impossible to just increase wages without rising consumption). However, in the long run, production growth cannot keep up with population growth. why? Because the growth methods of the two are different.

但是通过这种方式,您陷入了一个无限循环:随着生产力的提高,人们将变得更多。因此,生产力必须再次提高(这就像您赚的钱越多,花的钱就越多,就不可能在不增加消费的情况下仅仅增加工资)。但是,从长远来看,生产增长无法跟上人口增长。为什么?因为两者的生长方法不同。

The population growth is a kind of "geometric growth." In other words, if a person has 3 children, each of these 3 children has 3 children, the population growth will double like a pyramid shape. The increase in productivity is impossible to achieve this level. If there is no major disaster, the older generation is still there, and the new generation is growing, and sooner or later everyone's per capita resources will be insufficient. Therefore, Malthus felt that population growth needs to be controlled.

人口增长是一种“几何增长”。换句话说,如果一个人有3个孩子,那么这3个孩子中的每一个都有3个孩子,人口增长将像金字塔一样翻倍。生产率的提高不可能达到这一水平。如果没有重大灾难,那么老一代人仍然在那里,而新生代人正在成长,每个人的人均资源迟早都会不足。因此,马尔萨斯认为需要控制人口增长。

Moreover, Malthus has a very controversial argument: He feels that it is the lower classes that slow down social progress. Therefore, when he said controlling population, he mainly meant controlling the growth of the lower class and the poor. This kind of anti-humanity argument has also aroused many criticisms.

此外,马尔萨斯有一个非常有争议的论点:他认为是下层阶级减慢了社会进步。因此,当他说控制人口时,他主要是指控制下层阶级和穷人的成长。这种反人类的论点也引起了许多批评。

But over time, people slowly discovered that Malthus's very assumption was actually inaccurate. He did not expect that technology has advanced so quickly, nor did he expect that many people would spontaneously not want to have children. Therefore, some people criticized Malthus as the "cursed prophet of failure".

但是随着时间的流逝,人们逐渐发现马尔萨斯的假设实际上是不正确的。他没想到技术进步如此之快,也没想到很多人会自发地不想生育。因此,有人批评马尔萨斯为“失败的诅咒先知”。

The theory of Social Darwinists has long been out of fashion in modern society. The biggest loophole in their theory lies in: how to distinguish the difference between "superior", "inferior", "strong" and "weak"? It is transformable between good and bad, strong and weak, rich and poor. Is there a specific quantitative standard for artificial classification of people?

社会达尔文主义者的理论在现代社会中早已过时。他们理论上最大的漏洞在于:如何区分“优”,“劣”,“强”和“弱”之间的区别?它可以在好与坏欧宝体育官网app,强与弱,富与穷之间转换。是否有针对人为分类的特定定量标准?

Secondly, even if the so-called "weak" are all eliminated as the social Darwinists say, how should society divide labor? Among the remaining so-called "strong ones," pros and cons will inevitably arise. This does not depend on human will, but is determined by biological characteristics. In this way, social Darwinism will form an endless loop. If we continue to eliminate the so-called "weak", then mankind will inevitably head towards a path of extinction.

其次,即使社会达尔文主义者说的那样,所谓的“弱者”都被消除了,社会应该如何分工呢?在剩下的所谓“强者”中,必然会出现利弊。这不取决于人类的意愿,而是由生物学特性决定的。这样,社会达尔文主义将形成无休止的循环。如果我们继续消除所谓的“弱者”,那么人类将不可避免地走向灭绝之路。

Of course, the concept of "herd immunity" put forward by the United Kingdom should not be confused with "social Darwinism", because although their theory is wrong, its basis is to achieve the ultimate goal of protecting human life through herd immunity, and its purpose is not to Take the initiative to eliminate some people. However, if they really do this, the final result may be that some people will really be eliminated first. This is why they are generally criticized.

当然,英国提出的“群体免疫”概念不应与“社会达尔文主义”相混淆,因为尽管它们的理论是错误的,但欧宝体育官网app其基础是实现通过群体免疫保护人类生命的最终目标,并且其目的不是要主动消灭一些人。但是,如果他们真的这样做,最终结果可能是某些人将首先被真正淘汰。这就是为什么他们普遍受到批评的原因。

The biggest difference between humans and animals is that humans are human. In the animal kingdom, the weak eat the strong, and many groups will abandon the old, the weak, the sick and the disabled because they have no use value for this animal group. However, human beings, as higher creatures, protect the right of each individual to survive. This is the foundation of human ethics and the foundation of maintaining the stability of human society.

人与动物之间最大的区别是人是人。在动物界,弱者会吃强者,许多群体会放弃老年人,弱者,病人和残疾人,因为他们对该动物群没有使用价值。但是,人类作为高级生物,保护着每个人的生存权。这是人类道德的基础,也是维护人类社会稳定的基础。

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